TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter

1.  INTRODUCTION      1

        1.1  Motivation and purpose of the study     1

        1.2  The colonial background of Taiwan      3

             1.2.1  The aboriginal era              4

             1.2.2  The west European era (1624-1661)              5

             1.2.3  The Koxinga era (1661-1683)              7

             1.2.4  The Ch'ing dynasty era (1863-1895)              7

             1.2.5  The Japanese era (1895-1945)              8

             1.2.6  The Chinese KMT era (1945-present )           8

             1.2.7  An awareness of Taiwanese                    11

        1.3  Overview of the study    15

2.  Ethnicity, languages, and writing systems in Taiwan     16

        2.1  Ethnicity and Languages in Taiwan              16

             2.1.1  The Taiwanese aborigines              16

             2.1.2  The Holo people        18

             2.1.3  The Hakka people        20

             2.1.4  The Mainlanders               20

             2.1.5  Ethnic relations    21

             2.1.6  Language policy         22

        2.2  The evolution of written languages in Taiwan       23

             2.2.1  The Sinkang manuscripts               24

             2.2.2  The classical Han and Koa-a-chheh writings      25

             2.2.3  The Peh-oe-ji writing        27

     2.2.4  The Japanese, Taiwanese, and Mandarin writings      32

        2.3  The modern movement of written Taiwanese .    33

             2.3.1  Socio-political factors of writing reforms in Asia           34

             2.3.2  The first movement of colloquial writing in 1920s        37

             2.3.3  The contemporary Taibun movement since 1980          41

    2.4  Three main writing schemes of the contemporary Taibun    49

             2.4.1  Han characters only            50

             2.4.2  Roman script only            52

             2.4.3  Han-Roman mixed    54

3.  Sociolinguistic studies in taiwan                    56

        3.1  Previous empirical sociolinguistic studies in Taiwan       56

             3.1.1  Language attitudes    57

             3.1.2  Language use, shift, and ethnicity      58

        3.2  Literature on the issues of written Taiwanese      60

  4.  METHODOLOGY       63

        4.1  Methods    63

        4.2  Questionnaire design      64

        4.3  Selection of reading samples      65

        4.4  Selection of raters          67

        4.5  Conducting procedure .    68

        4.6  Data analysis       69

  5.  results and discussion            74

        5.1  Evaluations of different reading samples      74

             5.1.1  Evaluations of six characteristic scales                    75

             5.1.2  Different readings show different scores        76

             5.1.3  Raters' evaluations on writers' backgrounds              85

        5.2  Raters' backgrounds may affect their evaluations    96

             5.2.1  The significant factors        96

     5.2.2  The Taibun equation for predicting reading scores       106

        5.3  Language, mother tongue, ethnicity and politics        111

     5.3.1  Ethnic identity, mother tongue, and language ability         112

             5.3.2  Language, society, and politics      125

6.  CONCLUSION     134

        6.1  Summary of the findings   134

        6.2  Conclusion   137

        6.3  Recommendations for further studies       140

 

Appendix

A.  SUMMARY OF FREQUENCIES AND PERCENTAGES OF RATERS' RESPONSES IN QUESTIONNAIRE   141

B.  TRANSLATIONS OF READING SAMPLES AND READING QUESTIONS   146

C.  TRANSLATIONS OF READER'S BACKGROUND QUESTIONS       152

D.  ORIGINAL QUESTIONNAIRE SHEETS        157

E.  ORIGINAL HAN CHARACTERS OF PROPER NOUNS IN ROMANIZATION     168

REFERENCES       173

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION     182